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The Occult is in deep deep Trouble right now?? CARNAL SINS? These are crimes that the occult commits.why Darwinism was frowned upon.(A dawg named gawd)

I AM MONKEY DOG(dogs are not vegetarian, they are carnivorous.They have to have meat bi-products.

I AM HUMAN w/RH Factor Everyone seems to be having so much fun with this issue. Though carnal sin is carnal sin. The issues with cloning and genetically gene splicing, invetro fertilization , cancer research , HIV AIDS, and progeria, Cleft palate, and other troubles.

The Y chromosome is one of two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) inmammals, including humans (the other is theX chromosome). In mammals, the Y chromosome contains the gene SRY, which triggers testicle development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 50 million base pairs. DNA in the Y chromosome is passed from father to son, and Y-DNA analysis may thus be used in genealogical research. With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest evolving parts of the human genome.

This man above is a dog man,
I never believed that this was possible, and I will continue to dis believe in this possibility, and I encourage you to do the same. Though if your medically knowledgeable people will entrust these secrets to you. I encourage you to continue to expect miracles from your profession. I encourage you to continue to believe and practice Sciences that will heal and not harm people. Stop killing things of the living. Even when you find it to be morbidly gross or appalling, or old. This is a sabotage of humanity, and genocide.there are test that provide answers but you need more American Doctors and your not providing for them.

  Isaiah 56:3 (KJV)
Neither let the son of the stranger, that hath joined himself to the LORD, speak, saying, The LORD hath utterly separated me from his people: neither let the eunuch say, Behold, I [am] a dry tree.

  1. castrated man, especially oneformerly employed by Oriental rulersas harem guard or palace official.
  2. Usually denoted extreme strength as in Samson and Delilah . 
1 Then went Samson to Gaza, and saw there an harlot, and went in unto her.
2 [And it was told] the Gazites, saying, Samson is come hither. And they compassed [him] in, and laid wait for him all night in the gate of the city, and were quiet all the night, saying, In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him.
3 And Samson lay till midnight, and arose at midnight, and took the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and went away with them, bar and all, and put [them] upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of an hill that [is] before Hebron.
4 And it came to pass afterward, that he loved a woman in the valley of Sorek, whose name [was] Delilah.
5 And the lords of the Philistines came up unto her, and said unto her, Entice him, and see wherein his great strength [lieth], and by what [means] we may prevail against him, that we may bind him to afflict him: and we will give thee every one of us eleven hundred [pieces] of silver.
6 And Delilah said to Samson, Tell me, I pray thee, wherein thy great strength [lieth], and wherewith thou mightest be bound to afflict thee.
7 And Samson said unto her, If they bind me with seven green withs that were never dried, then shall I be weak, and be as another man.
  1. Vasectomy is different than castration.
  2. Some people have xxy or even xxx or other dirivatives of chromosones. 
  3. Sexual orientation may vary from man to woman , or both. 

Blood type (non-human)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Animals and bacteria have cell surface antigens referred to as a blood type. Antigens from the human ABO blood group system are also found in apes such as chimpanzeesbonobos and gorillas. Other animal blood sometimes agglutinates (to varying levels of intensity) with human blood group reagents, but the structure of the blood group antigens in animals is not always identical to those typically found in humans. The classification of most animal blood groups therefore uses different blood typing systems to those used for classification of human blood.

Simian blood groups[edit]

Two categories of blood groups, human-type and simian-type, have been found in apes and monkeys and can be tested by methods established for grouping human blood.

Rhesus blood group[edit]

The Rhesus system is named after the Rhesus monkey, following experiments by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener, which showed that rabbits, when immunised with Rhesus monkey red cells, produce an antibody that also agglutinates thered blood cells of many humans.

Chimpanzee blood group systems[edit]

Data on blood groups of chimpanzeesbaboons and macaques. Two complex chimpanzee blood group systems, V-A-B-D and R-C-E-F systems, proved to be counterparts of the human MNS and Rh-Hr blood group systems, respectively. Two blood group systems have been defined in Old World monkeys: the Drh system of macaques and the Bp system of baboons, both linked by at least one species shared by either of the blood group systems.[1]

Canine blood groups[edit]

Over 13 canine blood groups have been described. Eight DEA (Dog Erythrocyte Antigen) types are recognized as international standards.[2][3][4] Of the DEA, DEA 4 and DEA 6 appear on the red blood cell of ~98% of dogs. Dogs with only DEA 4 or DEA 6 can thus serve as blood donors for the majority of the canine population. Any of the DEA may stimulate an immune response in a recipient of a blood transfusion, but reactions to DEA 1.1+ are the most severe.
The most important canine blood type is DEA 1.1. Dogs that are DEA 1.1 positive (33 to 45% of the population) can be considered to be universal recipients - that is, they can receive blood of any type without expectation of a life-threatening Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction ("HTR"). Dogs that are DEA 1.1 negative can be considered to be universal donors. Blood from DEA 1.1 positive dogs should never be transfused into DEA 1.1 negative dogs. If it is the dog's first transfusion the red cells transfused will have a shortened life due to the formation of alloantibodies to the cells themselves and the animal will forever be sensitized to DEA 1.1 blood. If it is a second such transfusion, life-threatening conditions will follow within hours. In addition, these alloantibodies will be present in a female dog's milk (colostrum) and adversely affect the health of DEA 1.1 negative puppies.[5]

Feline blood groups[edit]

The commonly recognized system of feline blood designates cats as A, B, or AB. The vast majority of cats in the United States are Type A, but the percentage of Type B cats increases in other countries, such as Australia.[6][7] In a study conducted in England, 87.1% of non-pedigree cats were type A, while only 54.6% of pedigree cats were type A. [8] Type A and B cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies to the opposite blood type, although the reaction of Type B cats to Type A blood is more severe than vice versa. Based on this, all cats should have a simple blood typing test done to determine their blood type prior to a transfusion or breeding to avoid the haemolytic disease (or neonatal isoerythrolysis). It is also important to check donor cats for FeLV/FIV status.

Equine blood groups[edit]

There are eight major recognized blood groups in horses. Seven of them, A, C, D, K, P, Q, and U, are internationally recognized, with an eighth, T, which is primarily used in research. [9]

Bovine blood groups[edit]

The polymorphic systems in cattle include the A, B, C, F, J, L, M, S, and Z polymorphisms.

References

Blood type (non-human)

From Wikipedia, the free p
Animals and bacteria have cell surface antigens referred to as a blood type. Antigens from the human ABO blood group system are also found in apes such as chimpanzeesbonobos and gorillas. Other animal blood sometimes agglutinates (to varying levels of intensity) with human blood group reagents, but the structure of the blood group antigens in animals is not always identical to those typically found in humans. The classification of most animal blood groups therefore uses different blood typing systems to those used for classification of human blood.

Simian blood groups[edit]

Two categories of blood groups, human-type and simian-type, have been found in apes and monkeys and can be tested by methods established for grouping human blood.

Rhesus blood group[edit]

The Rhesus system is named after the Rhesus monkey, following experiments by Karl Landsteiner and Alexander S. Wiener, which showed that rabbits, when immunised with Rhesus monkey red cells, produce an antibody that also agglutinates thered blood cells of many humans.

Chimpanzee blood group systems[edit]

Data on blood groups of chimpanzeesbaboons and macaques. Two complex chimpanzee blood group systems, V-A-B-D and R-C-E-F systems, proved to be counterparts of the human MNS and Rh-Hr blood group systems, respectively. Two blood group systems have been defined in Old World monkeys: the Drh system of macaques and the Bp system of baboons, both linked by at least one species shared by either of the blood group systems.[1]

Canine blood groups[edit]

Over 13 canine blood groups have been described. Eight DEA (Dog Erythrocyte Antigen) types are recognized as international standards.[2][3][4] Of the DEA, DEA 4 and DEA 6 appear on the red blood cell of ~98% of dogs. Dogs with only DEA 4 or DEA 6 can thus serve as blood donors for the majority of the canine population. Any of the DEA may stimulate an immune response in a recipient of a blood transfusion, but reactions to DEA 1.1+ are the most severe.
The most important canine blood type is DEA 1.1. Dogs that are DEA 1.1 positive (33 to 45% of the population) can be considered to be universal recipients - that is, they can receive blood of any type without expectation of a life-threatening Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction ("HTR"). Dogs that are DEA 1.1 negative can be considered to be universal donors. Blood from DEA 1.1 positive dogs should never be transfused into DEA 1.1 negative dogs. If it is the dog's first transfusion the red cells transfused will have a shortened life due to the formation of alloantibodies to the cells themselves and the animal will forever be sensitized to DEA 1.1 blood. If it is a second such transfusion, life-threatening conditions will follow within hours. In addition, these alloantibodies will be present in a female dog's milk (colostrum) and adversely affect the health of DEA 1.1 negative puppies.[5]

Feline blood groups[edit]

The commonly recognized system of feline blood designates cats as A, B, or AB. The vast majority of cats in the United States are Type A, but the percentage of Type B cats increases in other countries, such as Australia.[6][7] In a study conducted in England, 87.1% of non-pedigree cats were type A, while only 54.6% of pedigree cats were type A. [8] Type A and B cats have naturally occurring alloantibodies to the opposite blood type, although the reaction of Type B cats to Type A blood is more severe than vice versa. Based on this, all cats should have a simple blood typing test done to determine their blood type prior to a transfusion or breeding to avoid the haemolytic disease (or neonatal isoerythrolysis). It is also important to check donor cats for FeLV/FIV status.

Equine blood groups[edit]

There are eight major recognized blood groups in horses. Seven of them, A, C, D, K, P, Q, and U, are internationally recognized, with an eighth, T, which is primarily used in research. [9]

Bovine blood groups[edit]

The polymorphic systems in cattle include the A, B, C, F, J, L, M, S, and Z polymorphisms.

References


References

 Occult involvement in Pasadena

Hubbard's life underwent a turbulent period immediately after the war. According to his own account, he "was abandoned by family and friends as a supposedly hopeless cripple and a probable burden upon them for the rest of my days".[112] His daughter Katherine presented a rather different version: his wife had refused to uproot their children from their home in Bremerton, Washington, to join him in California. Their marriage was by now in terminal difficulties and he chose to stay in California.[113]
In August 1945 Hubbard moved into the Pasadena mansion of John "Jack" Whiteside Parsons. A leading rocket propulsion researcher at the California Institute of Technology and a founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Parsons led a double life as an avid occultist and Thelemite, follower of the English ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley and leader of a lodge of Crowley's magical orderOrdo Templi Orientis (OTO).[9][114] He let rooms in the house only to tenants who he specified should be "atheists and those of a Bohemian disposition".[115]
Hubbard befriended Parsons and soon became sexually involved with Parsons's 21-year-old girlfriend, Sara "Betty" Northrup.[116] Despite this Parsons was very impressed with Hubbard and reported to Crowley:
[Hubbard] is a gentleman; he has red hair, green eyes, is honest and intelligent, and we have become great friends. He moved in with me about two months ago, and although Betty and I are still friendly, she has transferred her sexual affection to Ron. Although he has no formal training in Magick, he has an extraordinary amount of experience and understanding in the field. From some of his experiences I deduced that he is in direct touch with some higher intelligence, possibly his Guardian Angel. He describes his Angel as a beautiful winged woman with red hair whom he calls the Empress and who has guided him through his life and saved him many times. He is the most Thelemic person I have ever met and is in complete accord with our own principles.[117]
Parsons and Hubbard collaborated on the "Babalon Working", a sex magic ritual intended to summon an incarnation of Babalon, the supreme Thelemite Goddess. It was undertaken over several nights in February and March 1946 in order to summon an "elemental" who would participate in further sex magic.[118] As Richard Metzger describes it,
Parsons used his "magical wand" to whip up a vortex of energy so the elemental would be summoned. Translated into plain English, Parsons jerked off in the name of spiritual advancement whilst Hubbard (referred to as "The Scribe" in the diary of the event) scanned the astral plane for signs and visions.[119]
The "elemental" arrived a few days later in the form of Marjorie Cameron, who agreed to participate in Parsons' rites.[118] Soon afterwards, Parsons, Hubbard and Sara agreed to set up a business partnership, "Allied Enterprises", in which they invested nearly their entire savings—the vast majority contributed by Parsons. The plan was for Hubbard and Sara to buy yachts in Miami and sail them to the West Coast to sell for a profit. Hubbard had a different idea; he wrote to the U.S. Navy requesting permission to leave the country "to visit Central & South America & China" for the purposes of "collecting writing material"—in other words, undertaking a world cruise.[120] Aleister Crowley strongly criticized Parsons's actions, writing: "Suspect Ron playing confidence trick — Jack Parsons weak fool — obvious victim prowling swindlers." Parsons attempted to recover his money by obtaining an injunction to prevent Hubbard and Sara leaving the country or disposing of the remnants of his assets.[121] They attempted to sail anyway but were forced back to port by a storm. A week later, Allied Enterprises was dissolved. Parsons received only a $2,900 promissory note from Hubbard and returned home "shattered". He had to sell his mansion to developers soon afterwards to recoup his losses.[122]
Hubbard's fellow writers were well aware of what had happened between him and Parsons. L. Sprague de Camp wrote to Isaac Asimov on August 27, 1946, to tell him:
The more complete story of Hubbard is that he is now in Fla. living on his yacht with a man-eating tigress named Betty-alias-Sarah, another of the same kind ... He will probably soon thereafter arrive in these parts with Betty-Sarah, broke, working the poor-wounded-veteran racket for all its worth, and looking for another easy mark. Don't say you haven't been warned. Bob [Robert Heinlein] thinks Ron went to pieces morally as a result of the war. I think that's fertilizer, that he always was that way, but when he wanted to conciliate or get something from somebody he could put on a good charm act. What the war did was to wear him down to where he no longer bothers with the act.[123]
Scientology accounts do not mention Hubbard's involvement in occultism. He is instead described as "continu[ing] to write to help support his research" during this period into "the development of a means to better the condition of man".[124] The Church of Scientology has nonetheless acknowledged Hubbard's involvement with the OTO; a 1969 statement, written by Hubbard himself,[125] said:
Hubbard broke up black magic in America ... L. Ron Hubbard was still an officer of the U.S. Navy, because he was well known as a writer and a philosopher and had friends amongst the physicists, he was sent in to handle the situation. He went to live at the house and investigated the black magic rites and the general situation and found them very bad ...
Hubbard's mission was successful far beyond anyone's expectations. The house was torn down. Hubbard rescued a girl they were using. The black magic group was dispersed and destroyed and has never recovered.[126]
The Church of Scientology says Hubbard was "sent in" by his fellow science fiction author Robert Heinlein, "who was running off-book intelligence operations for naval intelligence at the time". However, Heinlein's authorized biographer has said that he looked into the matter at the suggestion of Scientologists but found nothing to corroborate claims that Heinlein had been involved, and his biography of Heinlein makes no mention of the matter.[9]
On August 10, 1946, Hubbard bigamously married Sara, while still married to Polly. It was not until 1947 that his first wife learned that he had remarried. Hubbard agreed to divorce Polly in June that year and the marriage was dissolved shortly afterwards, with Polly given custody of the children.[127]

Rise of Scientology

Exterior view of a building from the street
Hubbard established an "Academy of Scientology" at this Northwest, Washington, D.C. building in 1955. It is now the L. Ron Hubbard House museum.
The Church of Scientology attributes its genesis to Hubbard's discovery of "a new line of research", first set out in his book Science of Survival—"that man is most fundamentally a spiritual being".[181] Non-Scientologist writers have suggested alternative motives: that he aimed "to reassert control over his creation",[169] that he believed "he was about to lose control of Dianetics",[178] or that he wanted to ensure "he would be able to stay in business even if the courts eventually awarded control of Dianetics and its valuable copyrights to ... the hated Don Purcell."[182]
Hubbard expanded upon the basics of Dianetics to construct a spiritually oriented (though at this stage not religious) doctrine based on the concept that the true self of a person was a thetan—an immortal, omniscient and potentially omnipotent entity.[183] Hubbard taught that the thetans, having created the material universe, had forgotten their god-like powers and become trapped in physical bodies.[184]Scientology aimed to "rehabilitate" each person's thetan to restore its original capacities and become once again an "Operating Thetan".[182][183] Hubbard insisted humanity was imperiled by the forces of "aberration", which were the result of engrams carried by the immortal thetans for billions of years.[178]
Hubbard introduced a device called an E-meter that he presented as having, as Miller puts it, "an almost mystical power to reveal an individual's innermost thoughts".[185] He promulgated Scientology through a series of lectures, bulletins and books such as A History of Man ("a cold-blooded and factual account of your last sixty trillion years")[185] and Scientology: 8-8008 ("With this book, the ability to make one's body old or young at will, the ability to heal the ill without physical contact, the ability to cure the insane and the incapacitated, is set forth for the physician, the layman, the mathematician and the physicist.")[186]
Scientology was organized in a very different way from the decentralized Dianetics movement. The Hubbard Association of Scientologists (HAS) was the only official Scientology organization. Training procedures and doctrines were standardized and promoted through HAS publications, and administrators and auditors were not permitted to deviate from Hubbard's approach.[169] Branches or "orgs" were organized as franchises, rather like a fast food restaurant chain. Each franchise holder was required to pay ten percent of income to Hubbard's central organization. They were expected to find new recruits, known as "raw meat", but were restricted to providing only basic services. Costlier higher-level auditing was only provided by Hubbard's central organization.[187]
Although this model would eventually be extremely successful, Scientology was a very small-scale movement at first. Hubbard started off with only a few dozen followers, generally dedicated Dianeticists; a seventy-hour series of lectures in Philadelphia in December 1952 was attended by just 38 people.[188] Hubbard was joined in Phoenix by his 18-year-old son Nibs, who had been unable to settle down in high school.[189] Nibs had decided to become a Scientologist, moved into his father's home and went on to become a Scientology staff member and "professor".[190] Hubbard also traveled to the United Kingdom to establish his control over a Dianetics group in London. It was very much a shoestring operation; as Helen O'Brien later recalled, "there was an atmosphere of extreme poverty and undertones of a grim conspiracy over all. At 163 Holland Park Avenue was an ill-lit lecture room and a bare-boarded and poky office some eight by ten feet — mainly infested by long haired men and short haired and tatty women."[191] On September 24, 1952, only a few weeks after arriving in London, Hubbard's wife Mary Sue gave birth to her first child, a daughter whom they named Diana Meredith de Wolfe Hubbard.[192]
In February 1953, Hubbard acquired a doctorate from the unaccredited Sequoia University. According to a Scientology biography, this was "given in recognition of his outstanding work on Dianetics" and "as an inspiration to the many people ... who had been inspired by him to take up advanced studies in this field ..."[111] The British government concluded in the 1970s that Sequoia University was a "degree mill" operated by Joseph Hough, a Los Angeles chiropractor.[193] Miller cites a telegram sent by Hubbard on February 27, 1953, in which he instructed Scientologist Richard de Mille to procure him a Ph.D. from Hough urgently—"FOR GOSH SAKES EXPEDITE. WORK HERE UTTERLY DEPENDANT ON IT."[194] Hough's "university" was closed down by the Californian authorities in 1971. British government officials noted in a report written in 1977: "It has not and never had any authority whatsoever to issue diplomas or degrees and the dean is sought by the authorities 'for questioning'."[193]
A few weeks after becoming "Dr." Hubbard, he wrote to Helen O'Brien—who had taken over the day-to-day management of Scientology in the United States—proposing that Scientology should be transformed into a religion.[195] As membership declined and finances grew tighter, Hubbard had reversed the hostility to religion he voiced in Dianetics.[196] His letter to O'Brien discussed the legal and financial benefits of religious status.[196] The idea may not have been new; Hubbard has been quoted as telling a science fiction convention in 1948: "Writing for a penny a word is ridiculous. If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion."[135][197][198] The Church of Scientology has denied that Hubbard said this and insists that it is a misattributed quote that was said instead by George Orwell, although they offer no proof of this claim.[199] Hubbard outlined plans for setting up a chain of "Spiritual Guidance Centers" charging customers $500 for twenty-four hours of auditing ("That is real money ... Charge enough and we'd be swamped."). He wrote:
I await your reaction on the religion angle. In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell. A religious charter would be necessary in Pennsylvania or NJ to make it stick. But I sure could make it stick.[200]
O'Brien was not enthusiastic and resigned the following September, worn out by work.[201] She criticized Hubbard for creating "a temperate zone voodoo, in its inelasticity, unexplainable procedures, and mindless group euphoria".[202] He nonetheless pressed ahead and on December 18, 1953, he incorporated the Church of Scientology, Church of American Science and Church of Spiritual Engineering in Camden, New Jersey.[203] Hubbard, his wife Mary Sue and his secretary John Galusha became the trustees of all three corporations.[204] Hubbard later denied founding the Church of Scientology, and to this day, Scientologists maintain that the "founding church" was actually the Church of Scientology of California, established on February 18, 1954, by Scientologist Burton Farber.[205] The reason for Scientology's religious transformation was explained by officials of the HAS:
[T]here is little doubt but what [sic] this stroke will remove Scientology from the target area of overt and covert attacks by the medical profession, who see their pills, scalpels, and appendix-studded incomes threatened ... [Scientologists] can avoid the recent fiasco in which a Pasadena practitioner is reported to have spent 10 days in that city's torture chamber for "practicing medicine without a license."[206]
Scientology franchises became Churches of Scientology and some auditors began dressing as clergymen, complete with clerical collars. If they were arrested in the course of their activities, Hubbard advised, they should sue for massive damages for molesting "a Man of God going about his business".[203] A few years later he told Scientologists: "If attacked on some vulnerable point by anyone or anything or any organization, always find or manufacture enough threat against them to cause them to sue for peace ... Don't ever defend, always attack."[207] Any individual breaking away from Scientology and setting up his own group was to be shut down:
The purpose of the suit is to harass and discourage rather than to win. The law can be used very easily to harass, and enough harassment on somebody who is simply on the thin edge anyway, well knowing that he is not authorized, will generally be sufficient to cause his professional decease. If possible, of course, ruin him utterly.[208]
The 1950s saw Scientology growing steadily. Hubbard finally achieved victory over Don Purcell in 1954 when the latter, worn out by constant litigation, handed the copyrights of Dianetics back to Hubbard.[209] Most of the formerly independent Scientology and Dianetics groups were either driven out of business or were absorbed into Hubbard's organizations.[210] Hubbard marketed Scientology through medical claims, such as attracting polio sufferers by presenting the Church of Scientology as a scientific research foundation investigating polio cases.[211] One advertisement during this period stated:
Plagued by illness? We'll make you able to have good health. Get processed by the finest capable auditors in the world today [...] Personally coached and monitored by L. Ron Hubbard.[212]
Scientology became a highly profitable enterprise for Hubbard.[213] He implemented a scheme under which he was paid a percentage of the Church of Scientology's gross income and by 1957 he was being paid about $250,000 annually—equivalent to $1.9 million at 2010 prices.[214] His family grew, too, with Mary Sue giving birth to three more children—Geoffrey Quentin McCaully on January 6, 1954;[201] Mary Suzette Rochelle on February 13, 1955;[215] and Arthur Ronald Conway on June 6, 1958.[216] In the spring of 1959, he used his new-found wealth to purchase Saint Hill Manor, an 18th-century country house in Sussex, formerly owned by Sawai Man Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur. The house became Hubbard's permanent residence and an international training center for Scientologists.[211]

RHFACTOR

Blood type

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells.
blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells(RBCs). These antigens may be proteinscarbohydratesglycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes) and collectively form a blood group system.[1] Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 32 human blood group systems are now recognized by theInternational Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).[2] The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with + and - denoting RhD status).
Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type different from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.[3]

Blood group systems[edit]

A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of many possible combinations of blood-group antigens.[2] Across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found,[4] but many of these are very rare, some being found mainly in certain ethnic groups.
Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infectionmalignancy, or autoimmune disease.[5][6][7][8] Another more common cause in blood type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type.
Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome.[9] Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen.[10] The Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.[11]

ABO blood group system[edit]

ABO blood group system: diagram showing the carbohydrate chains that determine the ABO blood group
The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-A and anti-B antibodies are usually immunoglobulin M, abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria, and viruses. The O in ABO is often called 0(zero, or null) in other languages.[12]
PhenotypeGenotype
AAA or AO
BBB or BO
ABAB
OOO

Rh blood group system[edit]

The Rh system is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen, because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens. It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. However, D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs.[13] Rh disease can develop in these cases.[14] Rh negative blood types are much less in proportion of Asian populations (0.3%) than they are in White (15%).[15] In the table below, the presence or absence of the Rh antigens is signified by the + or − sign, so that for example the A− group does not have any of the Rh antigens.

ABO and Rh distribution by country[edit]

As with many other genetic traits, the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups varies significantly between populations and countries.

Other blood group systems[edit]

32 blood-group systems have been identified, including the ABO and Rh systems.[16] Thus, in addition to the ABO antigens and Rh antigens, many other antigens are expressed on the RBC surface membrane. For example, an individual can be AB, D positive, and at the same time M and N positive (MNS system), K positive (Kell system), Lea or Leb negative (Lewis system), and so on, being positive or negative for each blood group system antigen. Many of the blood group systems were named after the patients in whom the corresponding antibodies were initially encountered.

Clinical significance[edit]

Blood transfusion[edit]

Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study of blood groups, along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products. Across the world, blood products must be prescribed by a medical doctor (licensed physician or surgeon) in a similar way as medicines.
Main symptoms of acute hemolytic reaction due to blood type mismatch.[17][18]
Much of the routine work of a blood bank involves testing blood from both donors and recipients to ensure that every individual recipient is given blood that is compatible and is as safe as possible. If a unit of incompatible blood is transfused between a donor and recipient, a severe acute hemolytic reaction with hemolysis (RBC destruction), renal failure and shock is likely to occur, and death is a possibility. Antibodies can be highly active and can attack RBCs and bind components of the complement system to cause massive hemolysis of the transfused blood.
Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion reaction. Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency. Cross-matching involves mixing a sample of the recipient's serum with a sample of the donor's red blood cells and checking if the mixture agglutinates, or forms clumps. If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. If agglutination occurs, that particular donor's blood cannot be transfused to that particular recipient. In a blood bank it is vital that all blood specimens are correctly identified, so labelling has been standardized using a barcode system known as ISBT 128.
The blood group may be included on identification tags or on tattoos worn by military personnel, in case they should need an emergency blood transfusion. Frontline German Waffen-SS had blood group tattoos during World War II.
Rare blood types can cause supply problems for blood banks and hospitals. For example Duffy-negative blood occurs much more frequently in people of African origin,[19] and the rarity of this blood type in the rest of the population can result in a shortage of Duffy-negative blood for these patients. Similarly for RhD negative people, there is a risk associated with travelling to parts of the world where supplies of RhD negative blood are rare, particularly East Asia, where blood services may endeavor to encourage Westerners to donate blood.[20]

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)[edit]

pregnant woman can make IgG blood group antibodies if her fetus has a blood group antigen that she does not have. This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation (e.g. a small fetomaternal hemorrhage at the time of childbirth or obstetric intervention), or sometimes after a therapeutic blood transfusion. This can cause Rh disease or other forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the current pregnancy and/or subsequent pregnancies. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti-D antibodies, the Rh blood type of a fetus can be tested by analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to assess the risk to the fetus of Rh disease.[21] One of the major advances of twentieth century medicine was to prevent this disease by stopping the formation of Anti-D antibodies by D negative mothers with an injectable medication called Rho(D) immune globulin.[22][23] Antibodies associated with some blood groups can cause severe HDN, others can only cause mild HDN and others are not known to cause HDN.[3]

Blood products[edit]

To provide maximum benefit from each blood donation and to extend shelf-life, blood banks fractionate some whole blood into several products. The most common of these products are packed RBCs, plasmaplateletscryoprecipitate, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). FFP is quick-frozen to retain the labile clotting factors V and VIII, which are usually administered to patients who have a potentially fatal clotting problem caused by a condition such as advanced liver disease, overdose ofanticoagulant, or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units.
Clotting factors synthesized by modern recombinant methods are now in routine clinical use for hemophilia, as the risks of infection transmission that occur with pooled blood products are avoided.

Red blood cell compatibility[edit]

  • Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but cannot donate blood to any group other than AB. They are known as universal recipients.
  • Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
  • Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
  • Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum contains IgM anti-A and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e., A, B, O or AB). If a patient in a hospital situation were to need a blood transfusion in an emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued. They are known as universal donors.
Red blood cell compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; type O blood donors can give to A, B and AB; blood donors of types A and B can give to AB.
Red blood cell compatibility table[24][25]
Recipient[1]Donor[1]
O−O+A−A+B−B+AB−AB+
O−Green tickRed XRed XRed XRed XRed XRed XRed X
O+Green tickGreen tickRed XRed XRed XRed XRed XRed X
A−Green tickRed XGreen tickRed XRed XRed XRed XRed X
A+Green tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tickRed XRed XRed XRed X
B−Green tickRed XRed XRed XGreen tickRed XRed XRed X
B+Green tickGreen tickRed XRed XGreen tickGreen tickRed XRed X
AB−Green tickRed XGreen tickRed XGreen tickRed XGreen tickRed X
AB+Green tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tick
Table note
1. Assumes absence of atypical antibodies that would cause an incompatibility between donor and recipient blood, as is usual for blood selected by cross matching.
An Rh D-negative patient who does not have any anti-D antibodies (never being previously sensitized to D-positive RBCs) can receive a transfusion of D-positive blood once, but this would cause sensitization to the D antigen, and a female patient would become at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn. If a D-negative patient has developed anti-D antibodies, a subsequent exposure to D-positive blood would lead to a potentially dangerous transfusion reaction. Rh D-positive blood should never be given to D-negative women of child bearing age or to patients with D antibodies, so blood banks must conserve Rh-negative blood for these patients. In extreme circumstances, such as for a major bleed when stocks of D-negative blood units are very low at the blood bank, D-positive blood might be given to D-negative females above child-bearing age or to Rh-negative males, providing that they did not have anti-D antibodies, to conserve D-negative blood stock in the blood bank. The converse is not true; Rh D-positive patients do not react to D negative blood.
This same matching is done for other antigens of the Rh system as C, c, E and e and for other blood group systems with a known risk for immunization such as the Kell system in particular for females of child-bearing age or patients with known need for many transfusions.

Plasma compatibility[edit]

Plasma compatibility chart
In addition to donating to the same blood group; plasma from type AB can be given to A, B and O; plasma from types A, B and AB can be given to O.
Recipients can receive plasma of the same blood group, but otherwise the donor-recipient compatibility for blood plasma is the converse of that of RBCs:[citation needed] plasma extracted from type AB blood can be transfused to individuals of any blood group; individuals of blood group O can receive plasma from any blood group; and type O plasma can be used only by type O recipients.
Plasma compatibility table[25]
RecipientDonor[1]
OABAB
OGreen tickGreen tickGreen tickGreen tick
ARed XGreen tickRed XGreen tick
BRed XRed XGreen tickGreen tick
ABRed XRed XRed XGreen tick
Table note
1. Assumes absence of strong atypical antibodies in donor plasma
Rh D antibodies are uncommon, so generally neither D negative nor D positive blood contain anti-D antibodies. If a potential donor is found to have anti-D antibodies or any strong atypical blood group antibody by antibody screening in the blood bank, they would not be accepted as a donor (or in some blood banks the blood would be drawn but the product would need to be appropriately labeled); therefore, donor blood plasma issued by a blood bank can be selected to be free of D antibodies and free of other atypical antibodies, and such donor plasma issued from a blood bank would be suitable for a recipient who may be D positive or D negative, as long as blood plasma and the recipient are ABO compatible.[citation needed]

Universal donors and universal recipients[edit]

A hospital corpsman with the Blood Donor Team from Naval Medical Center Portsmouth takes samples of blood from a donor for testing
With regard to transfusions of packed red blood cells, individuals with type O Rh D negative blood are often called universal donors, and those with type AB Rh D positive blood are called universal recipients; however, these terms are only generally true with respect to possible reactions of the recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies to transfused red blood cells, and also possible sensitization to Rh D antigens. One exception is individuals with hh antigen system (also known as the Bombay phenotype) who can only receive blood safely from other hh donors, because they form antibodies against the H antigen present on all red blood cells.[26][27]
Blood donors with particularly strong anti-A, anti-B or any atypical blood group antibody are excluded from blood donation. The possible reactions of anti-A and anti-B antibodies present in the transfused blood to the recipient's RBCs need not be considered, because a relatively small volume of plasma containing antibodies is transfused.
By way of example: considering the transfusion of O Rh D negative blood (universal donor blood) into a recipient of blood group A Rh D positive, an immune reaction between the recipient's anti-B antibodies and the transfused RBCs is not anticipated. However, the relatively small amount of plasma in the transfused blood contains anti-A antibodies, which could react with the A antigens on the surface of the recipients RBCs, but a significant reaction is unlikely because of the dilution factors. Rh D sensitization is not anticipated.
Additionally, red blood cell surface antigens other than A, B and Rh D, might cause adverse reactions and sensitization, if they can bind to the corresponding antibodies to generate an immune response. Transfusions are further complicated because platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) have their own systems of surface antigens, and sensitization to platelet or WBC antigens can occur as a result of transfusion.
With regard to transfusions of plasma, this situation is reversed. Type O plasma, containing both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, can only be given to O recipients. The antibodies will attack the antigens on any other blood type. Conversely, AB plasma can be given to patients of any ABO blood group due to not containing any anti-A or anti-B antibodies.

Blood group genotyping[edit]

In addition to the current practice of serologic testing of blood types, the progress in molecular diagnostics allows the increasing use of blood group genotyping. In contrast to serologic tests reporting a direct blood type phenotype, genotyping allows the prediction of a phenotype based on the knowledge of the molecular basis of the currently known antigens. This allows a more detailed determination of the blood type and therefore a better match for transfusion, which can be crucial in particular for patients with needs for many transfusions to prevent allo-immunization.[28][29]

History[edit]

Karl Landsteiner
The two most significant blood group systems were discovered by Karl Landsteiner during early experiments with blood transfusion: the ABO group in 1901[30] and in co-operation with Alexander S. Wiener the Rhesus group in 1937.[31] Development of the Coombs test in 1945,[32] the advent of transfusion medicine, and the understanding of ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn led to discovery of more blood groups, and now 30human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT),[2] and across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood group antigens have been found;[4] many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups. Blood types have been used in forensic science and were formerly used to demonstrate impossibility of paternity (e.g., a type AB man cannot be the father of a type O infant), but both of these uses are being replaced by genetic fingerprinting, which provides greater certainty.[33]

Society and culture[edit]

popular belief in Japan is that a person's ABO blood type is predictive of their personalitycharacter, and compatibility with others. This belief is also widespread elsewhere in Asia, notably Taiwan and South Korea.[34]Deriving from ideas of historical scientific racism, the theory reached Japan in a 1927 psychologist's report, and the militarist government of the time commissioned a study aimed at breeding better soldiers.[34] The fad faded in the 1930s due to its lack of scientific basis and ultimately the discovery of DNA in the following decades which it later became clear had a vastly more complex and important role in both heredity generally and personality specifically. No evidence has been found to support the theory by scientists, but it was revived in the 1970s by Masahiko Nomi, a broadcaster with a background in law who had no scientific or
these facts, the myth still persists widely in Japan.

The most exciting new development in the field of male infertility is the ability to treat men with severe sperm production problems called non-obstructive azoospermia. Even though these men may have no sperm in their semen, we can now find sperm between the cells of the testicles in almost half of these cases. Using an operating microscope, the medical team at The New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Medical College of Cornell University, including Drs. Schlegel, Girardi, Rosenwaks, Davis, Palermo and other colleagues, has been able to achieve pregnancies in half of those men in whom sperm can be found within the testicle. Genetic testing of these men with non-obstructive azoospermia has revealed that 10% to 15% are missing a tiny piece of their Y chromosome. This condition is called micro Y deletion. Human beings have 46 chromosomes, males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome and females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome carries the genes that are responsible for producing sperm. Men who have low to no sperm count might be missing a small piece of that Y chromosome. Unfortunately helping men with micro Y deletion have children almo 

 guarantees their male children will have the same infertility problem. However, these children will be healthy in every other 

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