Some kind of mad medicine for mad illness

The medulla oblongata is the lower half of the brainstem, which is continuous with thespinal cord, the upper half being the pons. It is often referred to simply as the medulla. The medulla contains the cardiacrespiratory,vomiting and vasomotor centers and so deals with the autonomic (involuntary) functions, ofbreathingheart rate and blood pressure.

The bulb is an archaic term for the medulla oblongata and in modern clinical usage the word bulbar (e.g. bulbar palsy) is retained for terms that relate to the medulla oblongata, particularly in reference to medical conditions. The word bulbar can refer to the nerves andtracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to the muscles thus innervated, such as those of the tonguepharynx andlarynx.

Pseudobulbar palsy
Classification and external resources

Pseudobulbar palsy is a medical condition characterised by the inability to control facial movements (such as chewing and speaking) and caused by a variety of neurological disorders. Patients experience difficulty chewing and swallowing, have increasedreflexes and spasticity in tongue and thebulbar region, and demonstrate slurred speech (which is often the initial presentation of the disorder), sometimes also demonstrating uncontrolled emotional outbursts.

The condition is usually caused by the damage (bilateral degeneration) to the neurons of the brain stem, specifically to thecorticobulbar tract (upper motor neuron tract to cranial nerve motor nuclei).


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